Gastroesophageal reflux disease

Gastroesophageal reflux is normal phenomenon, however, in some people it can get sever to a degree that it becomes a disease

Medical evaluation includes upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and at times esophageal motility study, 24 hours acid and refluxate assessment

The main causes include weakness of the lower esophageal sphincter, hiatus hernia, esophageal motility disorder

Complications of reflux include, esophagitis, esophageal stricture, chronic anemia, and rarely precancerous and even lower esophageal carcinoma can evolve

Medical management is most common; however, surgical treatment is the most effective and durable

Multiple surgical options exist, and the choice among them depends on clinical assessment and results the work up.